Actions that do not require the allegation or proof of additional facts to
constitute a cause of action nor any allegation or proof that damages were
suffered. An example, in libel or slander, is a statement that obviously
damages a personÂ’s reputation (such as Â“Mr. Smith is a sex offenderÂ”) that does
not require any reference to circumstances or facts to understand its
defamatory meaning. In such actions, the plaintiff does not have to prove that
he suffered any damages in order to have a cause of action.